Showers have exited the far southeastern areas & gradual clearing is occurring from northwest to southeast. We picked up 0.30″ of rainfall at the station lastnight-this morning.
Showers have exited the far southeastern areas & gradual clearing is occurring from northwest to southeast. We picked up 0.30″ of rainfall at the station lastnight-this morning.
Tracking the Storm On Our Website: http://www.wlfi.com/generic/weather/hurricane-sandy-storm
Record Surface Pressure, Storm Surge, Flooding Rainfall, Hurricane-Force Winds & Even Some Rain-Wrapped Tornadoes…….
Current trends continue to point towards a <950 mb Nor’Easter (lowest mid-latitude storm system surface pressure ever recorded in the continental United States) making landfall now in the Mid-Atlantic early next week. However, the effects will be very far reaching with a storm surge, very heavy rainfall, hurricane-force winds (even well inland) & heavy, wet snowfall. In fact, in the warmer, more unstable air coming off the ocean in Maine, Massachusetts to New Jersey, a few rain-wrapped tornadoes will be possible as squally t’storm rain bands pivot in. These will develop where current data suggests up to 500 J/kg of surface CAPE.
Lowest mid-latitude storm system surface pressures ever recorded in the continental United States:
1. October 26, 2010 Superstorm (955 mb/28.20″)
2. Great Indiana-Ohio Blizzard January 26, 1978 (958 mb/28.28″) “Blizzard of ’78″
3. Armistice Day Storm November 11, 1940 (967 mb/28.55″)
4. November 10, 1998 storm (967 mb/ 28.55″)
5. White Hurricane of November 7 – 9, 1913 (968 mb/28.60″)
6. Edmund Fitzgerald Storm of November 10, 1975 (980 mb/28.95″)
Notice the map for Monday midday shows the flooding rain & intense wind & storm surge over the Northeast, but that band of heavy, wet snow Ontario & Pennsylvania to West Virginia & even Virginia & North Carolina mountains. Like the Blizzard of 1978, the warm front of the storm may nearly totally wrap around the center with 60s in Vermont & 30s in Virginia & Pennsylvania. In the Blizzard of 1978, we dropped into the single digits, while 30s wrapped into Michigan.
Up to 9″ OF RAINFALL is likely in the Northeast with perhaps +12″ OF SNOWFALL in the higher elevations of West Virginia & Pennsylvania.
Several inches may accumulate in the lower elevations with some wet snowfall of up to 1″ possible as far west as eastern Ohio.
We may get wind gusts to 32 mph Tuesday-Wednesday, but gusts over 100 mph are possible on the Northeast Coast, specifically around New Jersey, Delaware & New York. Some gusts to 75 mph are likely well inland.
What Does This Mean For Our Viewing Area?
Storm will keep it chilly & windy here with lots of clouds next week. A few showers may spin in here Tuesday-Wednesday. Some wet snow may get as far east at Toledo, Ohio & perhaps Dayton, but any accumulation at all appears to be confined to eastern Ohio & then east & southward.
A merger of upper trough, surface low, lots of cold air & a hurricane will bomb out a very, very strong Nor’easter with a surface low that may be the lowest ever recorded early next week. It may beat out the October 2011 955 mb superstorm over the Upper Midwest & the historic Cleveland bomb “The Blizzard of 1978″ over the Ohio Valley & eastern Corn Belt.
This storm is similar to the Perfect Storm of 1991 (offshore in the Northeast), the Northeast Snowicane in Fall 1804 (flooding rains, damaging wind & heavy mountain snow) & the historic European storm of winter 1999 that downed millions of trees across western Europe (including thousands of historic, very old trees in Paris). Winds gusted to 125 mph at La Dole, France; 108 mph at Orly, France; 105 mph at Paris; 98 mph at Zurich, Switzerland; 90 mph at Stuttgart, Germany; 88 mph at Lucerne, Switzerland. Gusts of 135 mph occurred at higher elevations. Damage was in the billions of dollars (U.S.) with large tracts of native forest downed, especially Germany’s Black Forest. 137 people were killed.
Storm will bring strong winds from the north, cold weather, clouds & perhaps even a few showers pivoting in from the northeast Tuesday.
Most of the t’storms with the actual cold front have stayed northwest of our area. I did see reports of pea-sized hail & winds gusts up to 54 mph with storms northwest of Morocco towards Kankakee.
There is a narrow line of showers moving through with that gusty cold front with wind gusts to 40 mph.
Behind it, there is that break, then band of showers & some t’storms. At WLFI, we have cooled from 72 at 9 p.m. to 58 as of 10 p.m. with passage of the front with a brief shower.
This is an anafront. This type of cold front is where most of the rainfall is behind the front, whereas a katafront is more standard with most of the rain out ahead of it.
Lowered projected rainfall for tonight-Friday from 0.50-0.75″, generally, to 0.30-0.60″ total.
Looks like most of the rainfall is BEHIND the front as the front is becoming anafrontal with the upper winds paralelling the front now. So, expect a narrow line of showers/t’storms with front (bb to pea hail possible in a cell or two) with quick wind shift to northwest with gust to 40 mph possible late this evening-early tonight. Then, after a brief break, showery (some t’storms) regime will follow as band of rainfall BEHIND the front passes overnight to Friday morning.
Thinking most of the rainfall will exit the viewing area Friday morning, but some showers may hang on to early- to mid-afternoon in our southeastern areas.
Gradual clearing will take place from northwest to southeast through the day, but may take all day in our southeast.
This Storm & the 1991 “Perfect Storm”……
A historic Nor’easter with winds to 105 mph, heavy rainfall & heavy snowfall will occur by next week in the Northeast with a combo of cold air, Hurricane Sandy & a strong low already moving through there. The track is in question, but all models agree on effects to at least part of the northeast U.S. GFS even takes Sandy & brushes her by North Carolina & Virginia with heavy rain & wind after brushing south Florida, before hitting the Northeast.
So, again, those elements of cold air streaming into the northeast combined with Hurricane Sandy moving northward & a strong upper trough & surface low in New England will combine to form a tremendous Nor’easter or superstorm. Similar to the great 1991 superstorm or “Perfect Storm”, if it would happen to take a track more towards populated areas of the Northeast, the costs would be immense. Again, questions remain on exact track.
The Great 1804 Superstorm Nor’easter or “Snowicane”…….
This brings back thoughts of the great 1804 Snowicane in the Northeast. A large, strong hurricane moved north, interacted with another storm system & cold air & brought pretty much a hurricane of snow. It appears to have been a major hurricane that skimmed by North Carolina & Virginia, then move northeastward & undergoing an evolution towards a tremendous Nor’easter.
The Old North Church in Boston lost its steeple & hundreds of ships were wrecked with structural damage widespread all over the Northeast from Philadelphia to Maine. Up to 36″ of snow fell in the mountains of Massachusetts, New York & New Hampshire, while 3-5″ of rainfall fell near the coast. Up to 48″ of snow fell in Vermont with forests in Maine reported heavily damaged by wind. Up to 14″ of snow fell around Worcester, Massachusetts.
Sidney Perley recorded in his 1891 book on historic storms of New England, “the wind reached its height in the evening,. . . People sat up all that night, fearing to retire lest their houses would blow down. Wednesday morning [the 10th] revealed the streets in town encumbered with sections of fence, whole or parts of trees, and many other things that the wind could carry away; the town and county roads everywhere were obstructed with fallen trees.”
Just as the wind began to die down, it began to snow and snowed throughout Wednesday and into Thursday, with accumulations from five to 14 inches. In southern New England it melted in a few days, but further north it stayed on the ground until the following spring. It had been 50 years since the people of eastern Massachusetts had experienced such an early storm, and even the oldest inhabitants could not remember such a violent one.
Orchards were ruined when boughs, laden with ripe fruit, snapped under the weight of the snow. The woods resounded with the hideous noise of breaking tree limbs, dealing a severe blow to the region’s shipbuilders. Large numbers of cattle, sheep, and fowl were killed, especially in the Essex County towns of Newbury and Topsfield.
“Such great sections of woods were leveled that new landscapes and prospects were brought into view to the surprise of many people. Houses and other buildings and hills that could not be seen before from certain places were now plainly visible. The change was so great in some localities that the surroundings seemed to have become entirely different, and people felt as if they were in a strange place.”
“Buildings and chimneys were blown down or greatly damaged by the wind.” Many churches lost spires and steeples, including the famous North Church in Boston. Few barns, sheds, or chimneys escaped unscathed. Roofs were blown off, houses collapsed, and many people lost their lives. Streets were filled with the debris of destroyed buildings, fences, and trees.
The most damage, however, occurred to wharves and ships. “Many vessels in the harbors dragged their anchors or broke their cables, and dashed against each other or the wharves, or were driven upon lee-shores and wrecked.” Many seamen died as ships were run ashore or against reefs and sand bars. The sloop Hannah was blown out of Cape Ann harbor and struck a ledge off the shore of Cohasset, many miles to the south. The first wave that swept the deck carried off the crew with the exception of “two men who lashed themselves to the boom and remained on deck about two hours until the vessel went to pieces, when the boom with the men still lashed to it washed ashore. Several of the citizens of Cohasset saw the men plunging in the surf, and came to their assistance saving them when they were nearly exhausted.” The Hannah was one of five vessels wrecked on the shores of Cohasset during the storm.
This storm will bring breezy, chilly weather with a few showers early next week to our area. The storm will keep the cool air flowing in from the northwest & the pressure gradient (even this far west) will keep the winds gusting to 25 mph Tuesday-Friday. In fact, high temperatures in the 40s are likely nearly all of next week.
Extreme to Exceptional Drought continues over much of the Plains & western Corn Belt. Extreme drought exists as close as northern Illinois. However, the drought is officially for part of the viewing area with the rest just considered Abnormally dry (long-term). Our deficit at WLFI is 0.44″ as of now after exceeding 8″ this summer.
Cap is finally breaking in Iowa as upper forcing arrives from the High Plains. Storms are starting to erupt there in multiple bands. Still looks like leftovers will be here by Thursday night & into Friday. For the northwest half of the viewing area, looks like showers exiting in the morning, but east & southeast of Lafayette, showery weather may hang on into the afternoon.
Severe t’storms will evolve to our northwest this evening-tonight. Notice that the tornado, surface instability, hail & shear parameters support the severe threat from Illinois to Wisconsin, Iowa & Missouri. The bulls-eye for the main severe threat will be eastern Iowa to northwestern Illinois & southwestern Wisconsin.
Additional storms may be severe from central Illinois to Wisconsin tomorrow, but it should all weaken as it moves eastward & affects us Thursday night-into Friday.
With multiple waves of storms to our northwest, those areas may see up to 3″ of rainfall in places, but we are looking at less (generally 0.50-0.75″).
Significant Tornado Parameter/Surface Instability/Significant Hail Parameter/Effective Bulk Shear & Surface to 1 kilometer Bulk Shear
October 15, 1871
“In October strong winds prevailed. The summer was very dry, and unusual fires raged along the marsh and in the islands of timber……….The October fires of 1871 ………..will long be remembered. Although a very dry season and many wells failed and cattle suffered severely from thirst, yet the corn crop was good.” The History of Cass County states, “according to records kept by old residents, the severest drought Cass County has experienced was in the summer and fall of 1871, the year of the great Chicago fire. It was also very warm, with an early spring. Cherry trees were in blossom on April 9th.
October 15, 1880
Fall-winter 1880-81 was severe in the Midwest with abundant snowfall & intense cold. November 1880 was one of the coldest & snowiest on record for our area.
Hard freezes struck our area beginning in October, interspersed with a couple brief periods of warmer weather, as two powerful blizzards battered the Plains in October.
An amazing early season blizzard struck portions of northern and northwestern Iowa on October 15-16. Strong winds blew the snow into huge drifts 10 to 15 feet deep paralyzing all modes of transportation. Early season snows usually melt very quickly but in this exceptional winter the snow did not melt and was followed by cold temperatures and additional snowfalls in October and November. The Weather Bureau recorded that the persistent snow pack so early in the season made “the feeding of livestock and corn husking almost impossible” and that much of the corn crop was not husked until the following spring. The October 15-16 blizzard had even more severe impacts in Dakota Territory and Minnesota and was only the first in a long series of blizzards across the northern plains through the winter of 1880-1881, which is legendary for its amount and duration of snows and was immortalized in the Laura Ingalls-Wilder book “The Long Winter”.
Interestingly, a horrendous summer in 1881 brought extreme to exceptional drought to the Midwest with numerous days in the 100s in Indiana.
October 16, 1892
The morning low at West Lafayette was just 64, one of the warmest readings so late in the season. The high temperature was 80, however, 6 degrees from the record of 86 set in 1963. Only October 16, 1879 was as warm as this morning with low at 64 in Lafayette.
October 17, 1828
Fall-winter 1828-1829 was “unusually dry”. So dry was it that steamboats could not navigate the Wabash & ship goods to merchants in Lafayette & Delphi. They were instead shipped by wagons from the Ohio River “very much to the injury of the merchants & disappointment of the people.” This contrasted with the major floods of spring & summer after a very mild winter in 1827-28.
October 18, 1996
The viewing area continued to clean up after a severe weather outbreak on October 17, 1996
A QLCS with three embedded supercells produced several intense microbursts & macrobursts. 10 homes were heavily damaged near Newport. 5 homes were damaged near New Market & Mace in Montgomery County. One home was moved 1/2 foot off its foundation & structural damage occurred to a factory. Wind damage was reported in Crawfordsville to near Manson in Clinton County from a narrow swath of straight-line winds north of the microburst & macroburst.
A macroburst occurred near Logansport & injured 3 people via flying debris driven by an estimated 90 mph wind gust. Several homes & businesses were damaged in Logansport & the roof was blown off a church. The worst damage was around the church. There, wind gust likely peaked at 95 mph. It would take such a gust to totally remove the roof from the church.
No hail or tornadoes were produced. Less than two weeks later, another damaging severe outbreak would strike.
October 19, 1883
There were two comets that astronomers observed in 1883, Brooks-Swift and Pons-Brooks, and the paper notes that either one could be responsible for unleashing the debris swarm that supposedly buzzed Earth. Had the path of the comet changed ever so slightly, the scientists say, “we would have had 3,275 Tunguska events in two days, probably an extinction event.” Tunguska was a humongous explosion in Siberia in 1908 that was probably caused by an asteroid impact; the detonation was so powerful that people 40 miles away felt like they were burning.
October 20, 2012
Average growing season length varies from 155-185 days in the viewing area. Morocco to Fowler has an average length of 160 days, while most of the viewing area has a 165-175 day length growing season. In southern Fountain, Montgomery & Boone counties, the growing season length is, on average, the longest (at upwards of 185 days).
October 21, 2012
The average first occurrence of 28 degrees is around October 18 Morocco & Rensselaer, October 19 at Fowler, October 20 at Kokomo, October 21 at West Lafayette. At Delphi, it is October 22, Frankfort & Whitestown October 23, Crawfordsville October 28. Lake Michigan influence make October 30 the average first 28-degree temperature at Rochester & Winamac.
October 22, 1883
Mount Mount Krakatoa, near Sumatra, had of the most significant volcanic eruption events in modern history, killing at least 40,000 people in late August 1883. Spewing tons of material into the lower atmosphere, this led to a global cool-down for months & the effects were certainly felt here. The worldwide temperature dropped 1.2 degrees Celsius.
According to Robert McNamara of Krakatoa Volcano Eruption 1883 Was a Worldwide Weather & Media Event:
“The sound of the massive volcanic eruption traveled enormous distances across the ocean. At the British outpost on Diego Garcia, an island in the Indian Ocean more than 2,000 miles from Krakatoa, the sound was clearly heard. People in Australia also reported hearing the explosion. It is possible that Krakatoa created one of the loudest sounds ever generated on earth, rivaled only by the volcanic eruption of Mount Tambora in 1815.
Pieces of pumice were light enough to float, and weeks after the eruption large pieces began drifting in with the tides along the coast of Madagascar, an island off the east coast of Africa. Some of the large pieces of volcanic rock had animal and human skeletons embedded in them. They were grisly relics of Krakatoa.
American newspaper articles in late 1883 and early 1884 speculated on the cause of the widespread phenomenon of “blood red” sunsets. But scientists today know that dust from Krakatoa blown into the high atmosphere was the cause.
The Krakatoa eruption, massive as it was, was actually not the largest volcanic eruption of the 19th century. That distinction would belong to the eruption of Mount Tambora in April 1815.”
This eruption brought a horrendous winter of snow & cold in 1883-84 with a reading of -30 in the viewing area during the winter. Late fall 1883 was snowy & the winter long & rough.
October 23, 1856
Tornadoes reported in Fountain & Boone counties. In Fountain County, “The damage on the West Plains & Shawnee Prairie has doubtless been very great. Such a tornado has not been before experienced on the Wabash within the memory of the ‘oldest inhabitant’”. The other damaging tornado at Thorntown, Boone County: “……down on the principle streets, while fences & stables were damaged in every part of town.”
A tornado also hit the central Illinois town of Littleton, as well, with “nearly every house in the place entirely destroyed.” There, the all-brick Methodist church was “torn down to the foundation.” Deaths & injuries were reported in Illinois, but no record of such in Fountain & Boone counties has been recovered.
October 24, 2001
A squall line of severe t’storms produced widespread straight-line wind damage & one tornado in the viewing area (F0 near Pine Village). Structural damage was reported across Benton County & a television & radio tower were toppled near Chalmers. Damage to grain elevators occurred southeast of Tipton.
October 25, 1805
An early-season heavy snowfall struck central & northern Indiana. At the White River Mission, a fort on the White River in Madison County, a diary mentioned that “it began to snow hard” on the afternoon of the 25th. It also stated “the Indians were frightened on account of it. They said they had never seen the like, this time of year, in this place….” By the morning of the 26th, the entry read, “it looks as it does in mid-winter.” Fort Wayne reported 12” of snowfall.
October 26, 2010
Narrow squall line, known as a QLCS, raced through the viewing area in the morning. Winds gusted to 80 mph in northern Jasper County & an EF0 tornado occurred in Howard County. An industrial ag building under construction was unroofed at Crawfordsville & a radio tower was toppled northeast of Frankfort.
October 26, 1862
Early-season snowfall struck the area with up to 5” falling. 5” fell in Lafayette. Temperatures fell into the teens after the snowfall.
October 27, 1844
Clean-up continued from a round of storms on October 26. Trees & fences were reportedly downed in Tippecanoe & Cass counties.
A damaging tornado with injuries & deaths occurred at Kansas City on the 25th & at 9 p.m. on the 25th, a large tornado destroyed homes near Westport, Missouri (near St. Louis) with deaths & injuries. It was reported to be near ¼ mile wide & on the ground for at least 8 miles.
This was apart of the famous Lower Lakes Storm that “swept the lakes clean of sail” with hurricane force winds. The barometric pressure with this storm system dropped to 977 mb in southern Ontario.
October 28, 1860
Ample rainfall in September was followed by killing frosts & freezes in mid-October. Curing the prairie grass, massive fires occurred in the dry, dry late October of 1860.
Judge Hall described the blazes on the remaining prairie west of Oxford at this time: “…….goes straight forward with a velocity proportioned to the force of the wind, widening as it goes, but the center keeping ahead; it spreads sideways, but burning laterally, it makes by comparatively slow progress; & if the wind is moderate & steady, the spreading fire is not difficult to manage, but if the wind veers a point or two, first one way & then the other, it sends this fire beyond control. The head fire in dry grass & a head wind is a fearful thing & pretty sure to have its own way unless there is some defensive point to meet it.” Benton County was referred to as Mas-kot-ia by Native people or “the place of fire”.
October 29, 1996
A QLCS with small LEWPs within it passed through the WLFI viewing area 7:50-10 p.m. on October 29, 1996.
Widespread straight-line wind damage was reported countywide in Newton, Jasper, Pulaski, Fulton, Benton, White, Fountain & Tipton counties with damage in the hundreds of thousands of dollars. Numerous trees, tree limbs, powerlines & power poles were downed by the winds & literally hundreds of farm buildings sustained damage area-wide.
A home’s roof was heavily damaged in Crawfordsville, trees fell atop a camper at Concord (Tippecanoe County), hundreds of trees were snapped or uprooted at Newtown. Rensselaer, Monticello, Rochester, Crawfordsville, Russiaville, Lebanon & Windfall all reported significant damage to the communities” trees with numerous homes reporting roof damage. Grain augers were overturned by the winds at Lebanon.
October 30, 1863
Early season snowfall: 3-5” across the area. This appears to be an Inside Runner storm has heavy rainfall was reported during this period in northern Ohio.
October 31, 1869
Fall 1869 was record-cold, specifically October. Temperatures fell into the single digits to teens in late October 1869 with much of the month well-below normal temperature-wise. Unseasonable snowfall occurred with 2-9” in the area October 22, including 4-9” in Tippecanoe County. Lafayette had 6” with this snowfall. Snowfalls continued even in November with the unseasonable cold.
There was heavy damage to trees & crops from the snowfall & early hard, hard freezes.
November 1, 1982
A line of severe t’storms produced damaging straight-line winds between 4:30 & 5:40 p.m. as the bow raced through Newton, Pulaski, White, Fulton, Cass & Miami counties.
November 2, 1855
A resident in Jefferson Township, Cass County, is killed by a prairie fire racing through the township. Strong west winds fanned the fire in November 1855.
November 3, 1899
5.7″ of snow fall measured at 7 a.m. on November 3 at West Lafayette after falling 6:30 p.m. to 6:30 a.m. Temperatures hovered around 33 or 34 during the snowfall, so it was slushy, sticky, wet & tended to melt as it fell quite a bit on the Purdue campus. Up to fell 8” fell elsewhere.
November 4, 1849
A traveler described a massive prairie fire on Twelve-Mile Prairie (ran from near Attica to Frankfort) in Clinton County during a windy, unusually warm, dry period for early November in 1849. It was in the upper 70s & lower 80s in the Corn Belt with the strong winds & dry air at the time. Skies were darkened with prairie fire smoke.
“The gentle breeze increased to stronger currents & soon fanned the small flickering blaze to into fierce torrent flames, which curled & leaped along in resistless splendor; & like quickly raising the dark curtain from the luminous stage, the scenes before me were suddenly changed, as if by a magician’s wand into one boundless amphitheatre blazing from earth to heaven & sweeping the horizon round,-columns of lurid flames sportively mounting up to the zenith, & dark clouds of crimson smoke curling away & aloft till they nearly obscured stars & moon, while the rushing, crashing sounds, like roaring cataracts mingled with distant thunders, were almost deafening; danger, death, glared all around; it screamed for victims; yet notwithstanding the imminent peril of prairie fires, one is loth, irresolute, almost unable to withdraw seek or refuge.”
November 5, 1985
Much of the viewing area experienced their wettest November on record. Crawfordsville measured 14.65” for the month, which is still the record wettest November as of 2012. Kokomo, Frankfort & Whitestown received 10.60”, 10.30” & 10.13”, for their record wet November. Other record wet Novembers in ’85 include Morocco with 9.55”, Perrysville with 9.43”, West Lafayette with 8.71”, Monticello 8.12”, Rensselaer 8.03”, Kentland 7.66”, Delphi 7.57”, Fowler 7.43” & Peru with 6.72”
November 6, 2005
Significant severe weather outbreak occurred in the Midwest & Lower Ohio Valley from the evening of November 5 to the early morning hours of November 6. This included 8 tornadoes in Kentucky, Missouri & southern Indiana. The southern Indiana F3 killed 22 people & injured 200, with extensive damage. Another F3 hit south of this tornado track in western Kentucky.
In our viewing area, it was widespread straight-line wind damage that occurred in the southeastern half. Trees & powerlines were blown down in Covington with widespread trees & powerlines down across all of Montgomery County with widespread wind gusts of 70 mph reported. Trees & powerlines were blown down in the Concord area of Tippecanoe County while a pole barn was destroyed near Flora, in Carroll County & a semi truck was overturned on I-65 3 miles north of Lebanon. A trailer was flipped over north of Peru & widespread wind damage raked Howard County with signs, billboards, large trees & powerlines snapped. Minor structural to homes was also reported. The entire western half of Howard County was left in the dark after the storm, while many powerlines & poles were knocked down in Tipton & Boone counties. Large limbs were torn off trees in Fulton County & a tree was knocked over in Logansport.
Measured & estimated wind gusts included 61 mph at Lebanon, 55 mph at the Purdue University Airport. 70 mph at Crawfordsville & 80 mph at Russiaville.
November 7, 1811
The Battle of Tippecanoe was fought on a gray, gloomy, drizzly & cool day. This was followed by a very harsh winter of cold & deep snows. In “The History of Odon, Indiana”, the book on the southwestern Indiana town’s history states that the winter of 1811 wiped out the buffalo populations east of the Mississippi River. The Elfreth Family diary of Cass County states that 1811-12 was the coldest, snowiest winter in history (in the 1800s to early 1900s).
November 8, 1940
Fall 1940 was very mild. In fact, at West Lafayette, the temperature did not drop to 36 degrees until November 7. The low temperature was 28 on the 7th & 30 on the 8th.
The first hard freeze occurred November 12 with 22 degrees. Even on November 21, it was 62 & highs were in the 50s & 60s November 17-22. The high on November 30 was 56.
November 9, 1991
Unprecedented cold wave struck the area, the likes not seen since 1951, then 1906 & 1869 so early in the season. Boswell dropped to an amazing 0 on November 8. Lows of 2 & 7 were recorded on the 9 & 10th with highs only in the lower 20s.
At Crawfordsville, the 8, 9 & 10th saw low temperatures of 3, 3 & 8, Rochester 13, 12 & 13. Frankfort had lows of 9 & 11 on the 8 & 9th. Kentland dropped to 1 on the 8 & 9th. Kokomo dropped to 3 & 5 & Romney 7 & 5 & Logansport 14 & 13. Perrysville had 0 & 8.
At West Lafayette, low temperatures of 7 & 8 were recorded November 8 & 9, 1991. Attica dropped to 7 on both days with highs only in the mid 20s.
These temperatures followed a 1-5” snowfall event across the viewing area.
November 10, 1846
1846 had a very late fall with warm weather well into November & even December. It was so mild in November that apple blossoms opened in November & some red maples were reportedly blossoming around Thanksgiving. “Seldom any frost” was written in late November & the ground had yet to freeze any as of November 25. It was also a very dry fall after a hot, very dry summer…………the worst since the torrid, droughty summer of 1838 & 1841.
November 11, 1911
Extreme cold front blasts through area, dropping temperature from (highs in the 70s) near 71° to 35° in minutes. It is accompanied by a violent squall line that produced widespread wind damage across the area & several tornadoes to our south, west, northwest & northeast. Structural damage is reported in Lafayette & West Lafayette, as well at Attica & Crawfordsville to Monticello, Morocco, Rensselaer & Delphi. A tornado was reported in Montgomery County, but I could not locate confirmation in NOAA records. Following the line of storms, rain changed to snow quickly with near 1 to 3” accumulations driven by “a gale”. Temperatures then dropped into the single digits.
November 12, 1880
November 1880 was the coldest, snowiest November on record for the viewing area. After a mild start to the month with 50s & 60s (with some storms), accumulating wet snow fell on the 6th (with strong winds of up to 45 mph). Numerous snowfall events of 2-5”(with up to 10” of lake effect) followed, as Arctic air rushed in & settled. This, combined with frequently strong winds & the some of the coldest November weather commenced November 12-30. The heavy lake effect snows also brought record November accumulations to our northern counties.
The worst of the record cold (records that still remain unbroken today), with lows in the single digits to below zero, occurred with a deep snow pack November 18-23. Only the November 1950 cold wave came close to the 1880 mid & late November cold outbreak for intensity & persistence.
November 13, 1833
“Greatest meteoritic display on record occurred”, according to residents in Cass County. Robert Reed Sr. described it as “rockets” with “thick streams of rolling fire……grand and awful……illuminated the whole heavens.”
November 14, 1997
Early-season winter weather dumps snow across the area. By the time it stops, 7” falls at Rochester, 6.3” falls at Wheatfield, 6.2” Tipton, 4.7” Whitestown, 4.5” Perrysville & Winamac, 4.1” Jamestown, 3.6” Kokomo, 3.5” Remington, 3.1” Morocco & Monticello, 3” Logansport & Rensselaer, 2.8” West Lafayette, 2” Fowler & 1.9” Pence.
November 15, 1955
2” hail Montgomery County with 2.25” hail in Boone County as severe weather event produces at least 5 tornadoes in the state. In Indiana, 18 were injured with $260,500 in damage from the tornadoes.
It is a very warm day with some areas approaching 80 degrees as of 2:30 p.m. Tonight will only drop into the upper 50s to lower 60s, followed by mostly sunny skies & 80-82 tomorrow!
Showers & some t’storms will arrive Thursday night-Friday morning. The rainfall will tend to exit Friday, but it may get sort of hung up in our eastern half of the viewing area, where it may remain showery into the afternoon east of a Winamac to Rossville to Ladoga line.
Highs Friday will only run 50-56.